Essay on Water Pollution

Water pollution is a growing environmental problem these days. Not only the environment but it seriously hampers the life and health of humans. I have given below three essays on Water Pollution of varying lengths for my readers.

Short and Long Essay on Water Pollution in English

Here I’m presenting short and long essays on Water Pollution in different word limits that is very useful for students of classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 to complete their school assignments:

Water Pollution Essay 10 Lines (100 – 150 Words)

1) The introduction of pollutants and harmful substances in water leads to water pollution.

2) Today water pollution is a matter of serious concern for the world.

3) Due to water pollution, people are not getting fresh water to drink.

4) Water pollution can lead to several diseases in humans.

5) Water pollution can cause death to humans and other living creatures.

6) Marine life is badly affected by the consequences of water pollution.

7) Water pollution also affects the ecological balance.

8) Untreated industrial waste, dumping, oil spills, etc are some causes of water pollution.

9) Water treatment before disposal, sewer management, etc would help in controlling water pollution.

10) The environment is getting degraded due to increasing water pollution.

Essay 1 (250 Words) – Meaning, Causes and Preventive Measures of Water Pollution


Water pollution is referred to as the contamination of water by several human activities. When toxic compounds get introduced in water, they render it harmful to health and dangerous for life.

Why is Water Pollution a Problem?

Do you know that around 80% of the world’s wastewater produced annually is dumped directly into our water bodies, without even get treated? Such a high level of contamination of natural water bodies compromises the health of humans as well as other land and aquatic species. Unclean and contaminated water claims more lives annually than war and other diseases.

Various Causes of Water Pollution

There are various causes of water pollution; most of them are human-generated. Some of the significant causes of water pollution are –

  • Dumping industrial waste
  • Urban sewage
  • Landfill rain wash
  • Mining activities
  • Oil spills
  • Fossil fuel production and burning
  • Leaked sewer lines
  • Littering at public places
  • Improper waste disposal

Preventive Measures

  • Ensure proper waste disposal at home.
  • Ensure that no fat or oil reaches the drain.
  • Avoid the dumping of plastic.
  • Avoid the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, especially during the rains.
  • Don’t improperly dump medicines and other chemicals.
  • Clean your nearest water reserve from time to time, with help of others.


Water pollution is a major threat to the environment as well as to the life of species. It affects everyone and is severely damaging the ecological balance. It is extremely necessary that we take the necessary steps to prevent it.

Essay 2 (400 Words) – Water Pollution: A Global Concern


Water pollution occurs when contaminants from different sources get into the water bodies. Such pollutants contaminate the rivers, streams, ponds, lakes, and also groundwater, risking the life and health of humans as well as other living species.

Water Pollution – A Global Concern

Water pollution has become an issue of global concern as it is beginning to affect more lives. Incessant and indiscriminate industrialization and other commercial activities have led to the exploitation of natural resources and also the pollution of water bodies.

Water pollution poses the greatest health hazard to humans and other living organisms. Millions of people from across the globe die due to water-borne diseases. They don’t have access to clean drinking water and are forced to consume dangerously contaminated water.

A contaminated water body is unable to support life. All the land species as well as the aquatic life suffers due to water pollution. Water pollution has resulted in the depletion of aquatic life. There have been a record number of declines in the population of fish, tortoise, whale, coral reefs, etc.

Water Pollution Facts

Below given are some of the important facts about water pollution –

  • Around 70% of industrial waste produced is dumped into water bodies.
  • Domestic sewage accounts for around 80% of water pollution.
  • Consumption of contaminated water causes serious ailments like cholera and diarrhea.
  • Billions of pounds of plastic garbage are released into the oceans annually.
  • Water pollution causes the death of around 15 million children globally.
  • 2.5 billion People don’t have access to clean drinking water.
  • Asia has the largest number of polluted rivers than any other continent.
  • Plastic is one of the main constituents causing the death of several aquatic species.

Prevention of Water Pollution

Water pollution can be considerably prevented by reducing littering and adopting proper waste disposal methods. This ensures that no waste reaches the atmosphere and hence water bodies. Also, there should be a strict regulatory mechanism to control industrial waste or to recycle it. Moreover, plastic use in any form should be banned mainly near the water bodies, oceans, and other tourist spots.


Water pollution is causing more deaths globally than any other factor. This is high time that the world reacts to the situation and gets rid of the menace of water pollution by taking necessary preventive measures. The problem will only be solved if we act otherwise, there would be no clean water left for us to consume.

Essay on Water Pollution

Essay 3 (500 – 600 Words) – Water Pollution: Causes and Effects


Water pollution occurs when the water bodies get contaminated mainly due to human activities. Water bodies like rivers, lakes and streams are continuously being contaminated by industrial, and sewage waste, released indiscriminately into it.

Causes of Water Pollution

There are many causes of water pollution but almost all of them are generated primarily due to human activities. Some of the main causes of water pollution as listed below.

  • Industrial Waste

Industries from across the world emit toxic waste into the nearby water bodies. This waste contains all types of toxic compounds like mercury, lead, all kinds of acids and bases, hydrocarbons, etc. It contains both soluble as well as insoluble impurities.

  • Sewage

Sewage water from human dwellings also contains all kinds of soluble and insoluble contaminants that pollute the water bodies. Many cities lack having a proper waste disposal management system, causing indiscriminate pollution of the water bodies.

  • Littering

Littering is another significant source of water pollution. Plastic and other waste that visiting tourists litter gets carried into the water bodies by wind and rain. Usually, these pollutants are plastic in the form of food packets, plastic bottles, etc.

  • Chemical Fertilizers and Pesticides

The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in the agriculture industry is also the main cause of water pollution. Harmful chemicals seep into groundwater or get carried into the nearest water body by rain.

  • Oil Spill

The oil spill is also a major cause of oceanic water pollution. Oceans have become an important route of transportation. This often results in accidental oil spills oversea. Oil doesn’t dissolve in water and just float on the surface, blocking oxygen, thereby harming the aquatic life.

  • Algae Blooms

Algae blooms are organisms that severely degrade the oxygen level of the water bodies. This in turn kills a number of marine lives and degrades the quality of aquatic life.

Effects of Water Pollution

Water pollution affects human health as well as the whole ecological balance of the planet. All in all, it affects each and every living organism that inhabits the planet. Below is a description of several effects of water pollution.

  • On Human Health

Water pollution is a great factor that affects human health. Millions of people from around the globe are exposed to some kind of contaminated water that seriously degrades their health. Studies show that around one billion people across the globe don’t have access to clean drinking water. Around half a million people every year die due to consuming contaminated water or water-related illnesses.

  • Species Depletion

Water pollution at different levels has caused severe impacts on other living species as well. While humans can clean water and consume, other living species don’t have that privilege. They rely on natural water sources as it is. If the water is polluted and gets consumed by animals, it harms their health, often resulting in their death.

  • Marine Life

Water pollution is the main cause of concern for marine life. When water gets polluted many aquatic species get affected. Water pollution has been the reason behind the declining numbers of fish, tortoise, whale, and several other aquatic species.

  • Environmental Degradation

Water pollution seriously degrades the overall quality of the environment. Everything in the environment is linked to each other. If the quality of water degrades so also degrades the quality of the environment. It consequently results in climatic variation, acid rain, and other effects.


Water pollution is one of the main environmental concerns today. It impacts not only human life but also the ecological balance as a whole. It also impacts the overall health of the environment.

FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions on Water Pollution

Q.1 Which river is the most polluted river in India?

Ans. Ganga River is the most polluted river in India.

Q.2 What is caused by the presence of excess fluoride in drinking water?

Ans. The presence of excess fluoride in drinking water causes Fluorosis disease.

Q.3 What is the major cause of ocean water pollution?

Ans. The major cause of ocean water pollution is oil spills.

Q.4 What is the indicator of water pollution?

Ans. The indicator of water pollution is BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand).

Q.5 What causes the Blue baby syndrome?

Ans. The presence of excess nitrate in drinking water is the cause of Blue Baby syndrome.

Q.6 Which is the commonly used method for water purification?

Ans. The common method used for water purification is chlorination.

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