Mahatma Gandhi or Mohandas Gandhi was an Indian Legend, who gave his almost every bit to reform the country and contributed to free India from British rule. Many people see Mahatma Gandhi in Many ways, Gandhi as a patriot, as a freedom fighter, a reformer, a protagonist and what not. He not only sacrificed himself for the independence of the country but was obliged to develop the nation. Here is long essay about Mahatma Gandhi including some his life incidents mentioned below.
Long Essay - Life of a Great Man: Mahatma Gandhi
1500 Words Essay
By the time of Independence, Mahatma Gandhi was so much popular that many people used to believe him with closed eyes. He has been a great contributor to India what we see today. The most common ideologies of Mahatma Gandhi were Truth or Satya and Non Violence or Ahimsa to deal with the situation against Britishers.
However, the great man had some controversies and issues that get highlighted by time to time. Issues like India Pakistan division and Saving of Bhagat Singh are very common. His one of the biggest critics was Winston Churchil, form PM of United Kingdom.
Education and Background
Mahatma Gandhi was born on 2nd October, 1869 in Porbandar Gujarat to Karamchand Gandhi and Putli Bai. His full name was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He completed his schooling from Alfred High School, Rajkot in the year 1887. At the age of 13 Gandhi married to Kasturba Gandhi who was a year old than Gandhi.
After completion of his high school, he moved to Samaldas Arts College for his higher studies. In the year he saw demise of his father and his first kid. Later, Gandhi decided to move to London to study Law. He went to University College, London to pursue his studies in Law. University College London was a part of University of London. After completion of his studies in law at the age of 22, Gandhi returned to India as a barrister and tried to practice in India.
Later, he got connected Dada Abdullah who was a merchant and had businesses in South Africa. Dada Abdullah offered him to pay £105 for a case to fight in South Africa for his cousin, which later was accepted by Mohandas Gandhi.
Gandhi’s role in South Africa
In 1893, Mahatma Gandhi departed for South Africa on one-year contract after being offered the opportunity to practice law. He found out that Indians were discriminated in South Africa on the basis of their ethnicity.
Gandhi committed the first act of civil disobedience on June 7, 1893. Thousands of South Africans joined him in protesting against the government during his non-violent campaign against racial discrimination in 1894.
In September 1906, Mahatma Gandhi organized his first nonviolent Satyagraha campaign against the Transvaal Asiatic Ordinance. The Black Act was the next thing he campaigned against with a Satyagraha in June 1907. Non-Christian marriages were overruled by Gandhi in 1913. A Satyagraha movement led by him was held in the Transvaal, resulting in the plight of Indian minors. In the late 19th century, he led about 2,000 Indians across the Transvaal border. Gandhi returned back to India in the year 1915 and everyone welcomed him as a hero. He was honoured with Kaiser-E-Hind award in Bombay and was also honoured by the Government of India.
Role in Indian Independence
Role of Mahatma Gandhi in India’s Independence despair and can’t be matched in the same field. After returning from South Africa Mahatma Gandhi stayed away from Indian politics waged a movement against untouchability, alcoholism, ignorance and poverty. In the new Constitutional Reforms Commission, none of the members were Indians, set up by the British government under Sir John Simon.
A Congress session in Calcutta in December 1928 was attended by Gandhiji, who proposed that the Congress should provide power to the Indian Empire or face the non-cooperation movement for the independence of the entire country rather than not do so. From 12 March to 6 April 1930, Gandhi ran 400 kilometers (248 miles) from Ahmedabad to Dandi, Gujarat, in memory of the salt movement, in order to produce salt himself.
- Non-Cooperation Movement
The goal of gaining total control was towards personal, spiritual, and political independence, which was referred to as Swaraj. The British were defeated by Gandhi through non-cooperation, non-violence and peaceful retaliation. As a result of the Jallianwala, or Amritsar, massacre, which was committed by English troops against Indians in Punjab, there was a great deal of public anger and violence. He then used his emotional speech to advocate his theory that all violence and evil could not be justified, but it was this massacre and the violence that followed that Gandhi laid his mind on the Indian government and the institutions it controlled.
Non-cooperation received far-off enthusiasm and participation of people from all sections of the society. Gandhi was arrested On March 10, 1922, Gandhi was tried for treason in which he was sentenced to six years imprisonment and jailed. Keeping in mind the fear of the movement taking a violent turn and considering that it would sabotage all its work, Gandhiji withdrew this movement of widespread non-cooperation. Then as soon as this movement reached its peak, it ended in February 1922 as a terrible hatred in Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh.
- Non-Violence Movement
His non-violent platform also included a boycott of foreign goods, especially English goods, which Gandhi called Swadeshi. Gandhi asked the men and women of the freedom movement to spin yarn daily for Khadi in support of the freedom movement. Aside from boycotting British educational institutions and courts, Gandhiji also requested leaving government positions and returning honors and honors received from the government.
In December 1921 Gandhi joined the Indian National Congress as a member of a hierarchical committee set up to improve discipline within the party. He led the party with the goal of securing Swaraj for the people.
Reforms during Independence
Reforms were main part of Mahatma Gandhi, he was considered as a biggest reformer and some of them by Gandhi are listed below.
- Kheda and Champaran Satyagraha
During the Satyagraha movement of 1918, Gandhi led both the Champaran and Kheda movements. He set up an Ashram which served as a gathering place for many of Gandhi's followers and new volunteers. As a result of discussions with the British in Kheda, Sardar Patel led the peasants in freeing all of the prisoners from the collection of revenue. Demonstrations and rallies outside jails, police stations, and courthouses, urging the unconditional release of Gandhi, were attended by thousands of people. As a result of this struggle Gandhiji was addressed by the public as Bapu, Father and Mahatma (Great Soul).
- Harijan Movement
Under a new constitution, the government allowed separate electorates for the untouchables in 1932, as a result of the election campaign of Dalit leader Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar. In September 1932, Gandhiji fasted for six days as a protest against this, which ultimately led the government to use a similar program of mediation proposed by Dalit politician Palwankar Balu. Despite remaining a prominent leader, the Dalits were unhappy with his new campaign. Gandhi's use of the term Harijan that, Dalits are socially immature and that privileged caste Indians have acted as patriarchs, was deeply offensive to Babasaheb Ambedkar. The Dalits were also undermining their political rights as a result of Gandhiji.
On the date of 30th January 1948, when he was about address a prayer meeting in Birla House in Delhi, Nathuram Godse fired 3 bullets in his chest from a very short range. These shots led to Mahatma Gandhi breathing his last at the age of 78. The news of Gandhi’s death was told by then PM Jawaharlal Nehru. Later, Nathuram Godse was sentenced to death in the year 1949.
Almost many freedom fighters faced controversies during the time of their lives and even after their death. Mahatma Gandhi was also one of them. Here are two incidents that prominently float over internet.
- Bhagat Singh Controversy
As to why Shaheed Bhagat Singh was hanged, there are different viewpoints in the country. Gandhiji, according to some, could have stopped Bhagat Singh's hanging if he wanted. The hanging continued despite his efforts to stop it. Mahatma Gandhi is said to have written to the president on 23 March 1928 to ask them to stop the execution of Bhagat Singh and his companions.
- India Pakistan Division
A statement is often misconstrued on social media as Gandhi supporting the partition of India and Pakistan. On 5 April 1947, Gandhi wrote Lord Mountbatten that Jinnah might become the Prime Minister of India, but that India shouldn't be divided.. Lord Mountbatten persuaded the Congress leaders to create two countries. Jinnah learned about this later. Gandhi viewed Gandhi as a leader of Hindus, not Indians. Jinnah remained adamant on his demand. It was partition that triggered the independence of India. Gandhi did not participate in any celebrations to celebrate the independence of India. He was never in favour of partition - but the need to partition resulted from certain circumstances.
Gandhi was a great man and he taught us with his deeds till the end of his life. Gandhi led a simple life and left a lot of marks of him. Although he was born in a good family and had a good knowledge but he chose to live in a very simple way. He always believed that a nation’s development is only possible if the amenities are provided to the last man of the nation. Gandhi was not only a person he was an inspiration and we must learn from life to do good.
FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions
Ans. The Alfred High School is now known as Mohandas High School.
Ans. Gandhiji was shot dead at 5.17 PM
Ans. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose addressed him with the name of Bapu.
Ans. Beretta 1934. 38 caliber Pistol was used by Nathuram Godse.
Ans. It is believed that Bharat Ratna and Nobel Prize are not bigger than Mahatma Gandhi.