Kaziranga National Park is one of the important national parks of India and is also a World Heritage site. It is a protected area that is rich in national beauty and diversity of flora and fauna located in Nagaon district of Assam state in India. The national parks are conserved areas with the objective of protecting the natural landscape from getting altered because of human activities. We all are aware of the excessive cutting down of trees and clearing of the forest as a result of human activities. This results in the loss of the natural beauty of that place and the extinction of several plant and animal species on earth. The existence of life on earth can only be possible if there is equilibrium in nature. Therefore, conservation areas like national parks have been created in order to stop this destruction and protect the plants and animals from becoming extinct.
Short and Long Essay on Kaziranga National Park in English
Kaziranga National Park is a very important as well as an interesting topic for all students and exam aspirants. Students might get this topic to write about for writing an essay, paragraph, assignment, project, etc. In the same reference, I have provided an elaborated essay on this topic. I hope that it might be useful to all students in giving them an idea about writing an essay, paragraph, project or assignment on this topic.
10 Lines Essay on Kaziranga National Park (100 – 150 Words)
1) Kaziranga National Park is situated in India in the state of Orissa.
2) This National park lies near the bank of the Brahmaputra River.
3) Nagaon, Karbi Anglong, and Golaghat are the three districts bounding the park.
4) In 1905, Kaziranga National Park was established.
5) This park covers an area of about 430 square km.
6) Kaziranga National Park is famous for one-horned rhinoceros.
7) This park is home to a large population of wild buffaloes.
8) This park encounters various migratory birds during the winters.
9) The Forest Department of Assam is responsible for the management of the park.
10) Tourists from different places come to visit Kaziranga National Park.
Long Essay – 2500 Words
Kaziranga National Park (Known for Great Indian One – Horned Rhinoceros)
The wave of development and getting scientifically advanced has made human beings blind. They have forgotten that the earth is not only the dwelling place for human beings but also home to the million species of plants and animals. Human activities like pollution, indiscriminate cutting down of trees and forests, clearing of agricultural lands, etc have resulted in causing a disturbance in the equilibrium of nature. The loss of forests means making millions of plants and animal species are without homes. This excessive destruction of nature and its inhabitants resulted in the conservation of nature from being destroyed by human activities. A national park is also a protected area that comes under the conservation of our natural resources. We will be discussing about the Kaziranga national park, its location, features, its diversity of flora and fauna, etc in the essay provided below.
About Kaziranga National Park
The natural protected landscape Kaziranga National Park is situated in the north-central region of Assam which is a north-eastern state in India. This national park is near the south bank of the river Brahmaputra and covers 430 square km. This national park area is surrounded by the three districts of Assam named Golaghat, Karbi Anglong and Nagaon. This park was established 117 years ago in the year 1905. There is a rich and fertile alluvial soil present in Kaziranga national park. It is because it lies on the bank of the river Brahmaputra and a rich amount of fertile alluvial silt is deposited by the river. The Kaziranga national park is termed as a biodiversity hotspot as this natural area has a rich diversity of plants and animals. The nearby areas in the close proximity of the Kaziranga National park consist of tree plantations that is beneficial for uplifting the economy of the state of Assam.
Management Of Kaziranga National Park- The management and coordination of Kaziranga national park is done by the forest department of the government of Assam. Its headquarters is in the Bokakahat town of Assam. The entire national park area is divided into five regions namely Burapahar, eastern, western, central and northern regions. Kaziranga.assam.gov.in is the official website of Kaziranga national park. The funds and financial aids for the administration of the national park are provided by the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change of the Government of India. It also receives its funds under Project Elephant from the central government of India.
The History Behind The Establishment Of ‘Kaziranga National Park’
The establishment of Kaziranga National Park was not a random decision but there is a history behind the same. In 1904, there was British rule in India and Lord Curzon was the viceroy at that time. His wife Mary Curzon went to visit that area in the Assam state as it was famous for the rhinoceros. She was very sad to notice that she could spot no rhinoceros in that area. Therefore, she asked her husband to take the necessary steps for the protection of the diminishing number of rhinoceros in that area. Lord Curzon and his wife together initiated the decision of the protection of the diminishing species of the Rhinoceros. This led to the establishment of the Kaziranga reserve forest of an area of 232 square km on 1st June in the year 1905. The Kaziranga reserve forest was further categorized as a ‘Reserve Forest’ in the year 1908 and was its area was extended till the banks of the Brahmaputra River and it became 384 square km.
The Story Of ‘Kaziranga Reserve Forest’ Turning To ‘Kaziranga National Park’
In the year 1916, the Kaziranga reserve forest was named Kaziranga Game Sanctuary and the entry of visitors was allowed in it. It was Kaziranga Game Sanctuary and again named Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary by a forest conservationist P.D. Stracey. This was done by him to reduce the hunting games in this wildlife sanctuary. Finally, in the year 1968 Assam National Park Act, 1968 was passed and the Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary was declared as a Kaziranga national park by the state of Assam. The government of Assam had also passed the Assam (Rhinoceros) bill that would impose a heavy penalty on anybody who is involved in hunting and poaching rhinoceros. Kaziranga National Park was officially accepted by the central government on 11th February in the year 1974 with an area of 430 square km. Moreover, this national park was also stated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. It is because of its natural sites and home to about two-thirds of the world’s one-horned rhinoceros.
The Evolution Of The Name ‘Kaziranga National Park’
The name Kaziranga National Park is a very interesting and unique name. Have you ever thought about how this national park got its name? There is not any single story but there are several local stories that are prevalent behind the name Kaziranga of the national park in Assam. Some say that there was a girl named Rawnga and a boy named Kazi and they belonged to the village Karbi Anglong. They both fell in love with each other but their families were not ready to accept their love. As a result, they went into the forest and never came back and thus the forest’s name was kept on their name as Kaziranga. Another tale states that there was a Vaisnava saint named Srimanta Sankardeva and he had two children named Kazi and Rangai. The forest’s name was thus kept on the name of his two children. Some facts state that the name Kaziranga had been evolved from the Karbi word Kajir-a-rong that meant ‘the village of Kajir’. In this way, there are many local tales from several legends that state the evolution of the name Kaziranga.
The Climatic Conditions Of Kaziranga National Park
There are three types of seasons namely summer, monsoon, and winter that have been observed in the Kaziranga National Park. The summer season is experienced between the months of March-May. The temperature during the summer months reaches 37 degrees Centigrade. The animals of the Kaziranga National park are majorly seen around the water bodies during the summer season. The duration between November and February experiences the winter season. The maximum and minimum average temperature during this season is between 25- 5 degrees Centigrade. All the water bodies and water channels dry up during the winter months.
The region experiences monsoons from July-September months of the year. The southern region of the Kaziranga National Park gets submerged in the water during the monsoon season because of the rising levels of the River Brahmaputra. Flooding of the major areas in the Kaziranga national park is very common in the rainy season. The flood in the year 2016 made more than 70% of the region of the park become submerged in water. The heavy flooding in Kaziranga National Park during the year 2012 and many of the animals died in this flood. Thus it can be said that floods during the rainy season and food shortages and forest fires are common in Kaziranga national park during the dry seasons of the year.
The Diversity of Fauna in Kaziranga National Park
Kaziranga National Park is regarded as a biodiversity hotspot and this means that it is home to a large variety of wildlife species. It is known for inhabiting the world’s largest population of approximately 2400 one-horned rhinoceros. This national park consists of about 35 species of mammals among which 15 are listed on the IUCN Red List. It also consists of a large population of herbivores like Indian elephants, gaur, sambar, Indian muntjac, wild boar and hog deer. Kaziranga national park has a large population of wild buffaloes that accounts for more than 55% of its population in the world.
Africa is known for hosting a wide variety of large cat species in the world but Kaziranga is among some of the places except Africa that is home to a wide variety of large cat species like Bengal Tigers and leopards. This national park was designated as a Tiger Reserve in the year 2006 because of having a high population of Tigers i.e. 118 in number. The small mammal species in the Kaziranga national park include hispid hare, Indian gray mongoose, small Indian mongooses, large Indian civet, small Indian civets, Bengal fox, golden jackal, sloth bear, Chinese pangolins, hog badger, flying squirrel, etc. The Kaziranga River is home to several species of fish and the Ganges Dolphin.
Beautiful Birdlife International- Kaziranga national park is home to several migratory birds from different regions of the world during the winter season. These migratory birds include water birds, predators, scavengers, and game birds. The gathering of migratory birds like while-fronted goose, ferruginous duck, Baer’s pochard duck, black-necked stork, Asian open bill storks, etc enhances the beauty of this national park. Kaziranga national park was hosting a large population of vultures at a time but the population was reduced because of the death of the birds by feeding the carcasses of the animals containing the drug diclofenac. Some of the species like the Indian vulture, slender-billed vulture and Indian white-rumped vulture, were less affected by the drugs and thus survived.
Blyth’s kingfisher, white-bellied heron, Dalmatian pelican, spot-billed pelican, Nordmann’s greenshank, and black-bellied tern are the major riverine birds inhabiting this national park region. Black-breasted parrotbill and rufous vented grass babbler are the names of the threatened species of birds found in this national park. The snake species like reticulated python, rock python, king cobra, Russel’s viper, common krait, and several species of reptiles are found in Kaziranga National Park.
The Diversity of Flora in Kaziranga National Park
There are different species of flora that form a beautiful landscape in the Kaziranga National Park. Alluvial inundated grasslands, alluvial savanna woodlands, tropical moist mixed deciduous forests, and tropical semi-evergreen forests are the major forms of vegetation existing in the park. The western side of the national park that is at a lower altitude is mainly covered by sort grasses and tall grasses like sugarcane, spear grass, elephant grass, etc cover the area of the eastern region of the park that is at a higher altitude. Kumbhi, Indian gooseberry, cotton tree, elephant apple are found in larger numbers in the national park. There are different varieties of trees found in the evergreen and semi-evergreen areas of the Kaziranga national park. Moreover, there are different species of aquatic plants present on the river shore lying in the Kaziranga national park.
How Can We Visit the Kaziranga National Park?
People mainly plan a tour to visit the Kaziranga national park and the most common activities they do is observing the wildlife and birds. The guides are available in the national park that can provide us with help in visiting the national park. The interpretation center is currently being set up in the park that will help people know the maximum things about the Kaziranga national park. The national park is closed from May-October because of the monsoon season. The park area can be visited with the help of elephants and jeeps. Vehicles of all types are allowed inside the national park by the forest department. The hiking activity is not allowed in this national park. The beauty of the wildlife in the park can be observed from the observation towers that are built in Sohola, Mihimukh, Kathpara, Foliamari, and Harmoti. The lower Himalayan peak gives a beautiful view of the landscape to the park.
Increasing Tourist Activity in Kaziranga National Park- The beautiful greenery of the Kaziranga national park, its biodiversity of flora and fauna, different types of birds make this place to be one of the most beautiful places of natural beauty. People from different parts of the nation and world come to visit this national park and enjoy its wildlife view. The increasing tourism is greatly helping in enhancing the financial condition of the people living in the close proximity of the national park area. Moreover, it makes the people of that place realize the importance of the national park and its wildlife. Kaziranga national orchid and the Biodiversity Park that had been set up recently is the extension of the Kaziranga National Park. It is built in Durgapur village and is attracting more tourists nowadays. This orchid and biodiversity park contains more than 500 species of orchids, 132 varieties of leafy vegetable and citrus fruits, 12 species of cane, 46 bamboo species, and different varieties of local fishes.
Kaziranga National Park in Assam is a conserved site that is full of beautiful landscapes and wildlife. It is a park where we can spot different types of wild animals, birds, fishes, and reptiles in a single place. It is amazing to see those wild animals that might only be part of our dreams or fantasy in reality. The government takes all the measures to protect this wide variety of flora and fauna and thus Kaziranga is stated as a government-protected area called a national park. This is the best place for visiting during the holiday trips and I may suggest all of you plan it surely. This place as a trip for vacation would be full of fun and enhance our knowledge regarding the variety of flora and fauna.
This essay would provide you with a brief idea about the Kaziranga national park and its inhabitants. I hope you will love and enjoy reading the essay on Kaziranga national park and by now you would have decided to visit this unique place with immense natural beauty.
FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions on Kaziranga National Park
Ans. The One-Horned Rhinoceros, Royal Bengal Tiger, Asian Elephant, Wild Water Buffalo, and Swamp Deer form the ‘Big Five’ of Kaziranga National Park.
Ans. The First National Park of India is Jim Corbett National Park established in the year 1936.
Ans. Madhya Pradesh having 9 National Parks in the state has the highest number of National Parks in India.
Ans.The Asiatic Lions are found in the Gir National Park located in the Gujarat state of India.
Ans. Kaziranga National Park is known for having the world’s highest population of One-Horned Rhinoceros.