India is regarded as the second most populated country in the world after China. It is good to see the name of our nation placed in the top ranks in any of the fields but the top ranking of India in terms of population is a serious concern. It is because the carrying capacity of the nation is fixed. The rising population of a nation above the carrying capacity of a region can pose a serious threat for the people of the nation in the coming future. The rising population of India is also a serious concern and needs to be reduced as soon as possible. A family planning program is only one way that can help in bringing down the hike in population in the nation.
Family Planning in India Essay in English
Family Planning in India is a significant topic for school students and exam aspirants. Students get this topic in exams to write an essay in this. I have provided an elaborated essay on family planning in India. I hope this might be beneficial for all the students and give them an idea of writing an essay, project, or assignment on this topic.
10 Lines Essay on Family Planning - Short Essay (100-120 Words)
1) Family planning refers deciding the number of children a couple want to have.
2) Family planning depends on various factors like career, marital and financial issues.
3) Family planning refers to having children by choice not by chance.
4) Family planning is the need of the increasing population.
5) India is considered the first country to launch family planning.
6) Family planning also helps in social improvement.
7) In 1952, the first family planning program was launched in India.
8) The National Family Planning Program aimed to control the growing population in India.
9) Family Planning leads to a safe motherhood.
10) Family planning requires the use of various contraceptive methods to control unwanted pregnancies.
Long Essay on Family Planning in India - 2000 Words
India is stated as a developing nation in the world. The rise in the population of the nation if uncontrolled can become a great hindrance in the growth and development of the nation. In this way, it will be taking years for the nation to become a developed nation in the world. Moreover, in a very less time India will be on top position by taking the place of China. Thus, it is the dire need of the nation to reduce its population in the coming future and family planning is the best preventive measure for the same. We will be discussing family planning, its history, need, benefits, etc in the essay provided below.
What Is Meant By Family Planning?
Family Planning refers to the ability of a couple or women to predict the number of children they want to have. This totally states the choice and planning of women regarding the number of children. Family planning basically requires the use of contraceptives and treatments. The use of contraceptives and the adoption of sterilization methods help in controlling reproduction. The choice of children and their number for every couple depends upon several factors like marital status, career, financial status, etc. Therefore, family planning better means that having children by not depending on chance but by choice and planning.
Need Of Family Planning Programme In India
The rising population in the nation was a grave issue and thus it was essential to control birth in the nation. The results would be devastating if the family planning scheme was not adopted on time. In the year 1960s, there was a food shortage in the nation and there was no control on the population. The grains were imported into the nation at that time to quench the need of the people. The government decided that the population must be reduced so that the nation would not suffer in the future. It is therefore the reason that India was the first country in the world to launch family planning in the nation.
The implementation of the family planning programme in the nation will also help in social improvement. It will improve the people’s standard of living and hence this will help in improving the entire society. Moreover, women will be able to avoid unwanted pregnancies by using contraceptive measures. This will result in promoting safe motherhood.
History Of Family Planning In India
The initiation of the discussion of family planning in India started with a Marathi magazine published by Raghunath Dhondo Karve in July 1927. In the magazine, he had discussed the welfare of the society and control of the population by using contraceptives. He laid stress on the use of contraceptives for preventing unwanted pregnancies and also stated that the Indian government should focus on launching population control programmes in the nation. His opinion was greatly opposed in the nation.
Initiation Of First Family Planning Programme In India- The first family planning programming was launched in India in the year 1952. A Central Family Planning Board was also established in the year 1956 in the nation after the independence of India. This was coordinated and monitored by the Ministry of Health. It was stated as National Family Planning Programme and by launching this programme in the nation; India became the first country in the world to launch the family planning programme. The basic objective of initiating this programme was to limit the population growth in the nation. It was also stated that the programme will also enhance the economic growth of the nation. Family Planning clinics were set up in the different regions of the nation.
The Vision of Launching National Family Planning Programme (1952)
- To make people understand the importance of small healthy family and thus to adopt the same.
- To make parents only to decide and plan the number of children they want to have.
- The media and leaders must approach the people and make aware to them about the importance of the family planning programme.
- To ensure that services are made available to the people easily.
- The programme was further continued in the nation in form of several series of five-year plans from the year 1952 to 1979. The main motive of the programme was to enhance the economic growth in the nation. The birth control procedures also changed in the due course. It changed from the rhythm method to the use of Intra-Uterine Devices (IUDs) and sterilization methods.
Programme Of Sterilization- Earlier during the initiation of the family planning programme barrier methods were mostly brought into use by the people for birth control. Later during mid of the 1960s, the use of IUDs and Sterilization methods became more popular. The programme of sterilization was also launched as a part of the family planning programme in the year 1975 during the period of the National Emergency. In this programme, the men with two or more children were to be the subject of sterilization. The reality was that many young, unmarried, poor men and political opponents became victims of this programme. In this way, more than 10 million people had been operated during this. Later the National Family Planning programme was renamed as National Family Welfare Programme in the year 1977.
Procedures Adopted By People For Birth Control In Family Planning Programme
There were three contraceptives adopted by the people for the prevention of unwanted birth in the nation during the initiation of the National Family Planning Programme in the nation. The methods are enlisted below.
Sterilization- It is the process in which a small operation is performed in men as well as women. The ligation of tubes in women is called tubectomy and vasectomy is performed in men. This method of birth control is totally secure.
Use Of Intra-Uterine Devices- The use of IUD grants the prevention of birth control up to 95%. It involves the insertion of devices in the uterus of the women. The IUDs are categorized into two types namely copper and hormonal IUDs. Copper-T intrauterine device, Levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG IUD), etc are examples of Intra-uterine devices.
Use Of Oral Hormonal Pills- The intake of oral birth control pills was much used by women for the prevention of the birth of unwanted children. The use of oral pills birth control method provides only 50% protection. These birth control pills are made by the combination of human hormones called estrogen and progesterone. The use of these pills helps in stopping the release of eggs or stops sperms from reaching the eggs. The intake of these pills in the right way helps in proper prevention of unwanted pregnancy. Moreover, the use of pills must be done only after consulting the doctor. The side effects of using these pills include nausea, headache, tender breasts, clotting of blood, high blood pressure, etc.
Achievements Of Family Planning Programme In India
The initiation of family planning programme in the nation was a great step towards the attainment of population control in the nation since 1952. The programmes had been extended in the sets of five-year plans. The achievements of the Family Planning Programme have been stated below:
- A hike of three times is noticed in the use of contraceptives by the people from 1965 to 2009. The percentage of married women using contraceptives in the year 1970 was 13% and that rose to become 48% in the year 2009.
- People have become more aware of the use of contraceptive methods after the introduction of family planning programmes.
- There was a reduction in fertility rates and it was halved. It reduced from 2.4 % in the year 2012 to 5.6% in the year 1966.
- About 16.8 crores of births have been prevented in the nation with the introduction of family planning programme.
Criticisms Of Family Planning Programme In India
The National family planning programme was launched in the nation and continued for years in sets of five-year plans to reduce the growing population in the nation. Yet it was able to bring some positive changes but it could not be fully successful on a large scale. There were some criticisms in the implementation of the programme and they are enlisted below:
- The family planning programme in India would be more effective if the focus of the programme would be on the factors like poverty, education, public health care, etc. that affects the population growth.
- It would have been better if the local compulsions and contexts were given more attention rather than working on the priority of programmes that had been provided with a good amount of foreign funds attached with conditions and external pressures.
- The process of forced sterilization of men from 1975 to 1977 was considered inappropriate and thus it created great dislike among the people for the family planning programme.
- This further resulted in the diversion of the focus of the sterilization process in the family planning programmes towards women.
Family Planning Strategies At Present
Outcome Of Family Planning Programme (1952-2012) - The family planning programme in India was initiated in the year 1952 and then this was further continued as a five-year family planning programme in the successive years till the year 2012. The programmes were successful in making people aware of the meaning of population growth and its need for reducing the same. Since the programme was continued for the period of 40 years in the nation the literacy rate was also improved gradually. The educated women were more conscious about the use of contraceptives. The use of the process of sterilization, oral contraceptives, IUDs, barriers had increased during the successive years.
The Initiation of Mission Pariwar Vikas In 2017- A family planning programme named Mission Pariwar Vikas was initiated in the year 2017. The coordination of this programme was done by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The main vision of launching this programme in the nation was to
- Enhance the use of contraceptives and their delivery to the people
- Reduction in the fertility rate in the entire nation from 2.3 to 2.1 till the year 2025
- Promoting the family planning campaign via print, television, radio, and social media
The Current Scenario- At present, female and male sterilization, intrauterine contraceptive devices, oral contraceptives, and barriers, are the official methods that are focused in family planning programmes. The use of condoms also has increased in the nation at present. This also helps in reducing the chances of transfer of sexually communicated diseases. More attention is being given to the increase of healthcare facilities in the nation. Women nowadays have become more conscious of their health and therefore they are using contraceptive methods to avoid unwanted pregnancies.
A decreasing trend in the fertility rate has been observed after the initiation of family planning programmes in India. The fertility rate that was 5.7 in 1966 had declined to 3.3 in the year 1997. Later in the year 2009, there was more reduction in the fertility rate and it became 2.7. At present, the fertility rate is approximately 2.3. In this way, we can observe that was a significant change noticed after the initiation of the family planning programme in India and its continuation till 2012. Recently Mission Pariwar Vikas family planning programme is active in the nation. The plan has also been updated in November 2019 for making it a more effective family planning campaign in the nation.
It has been observed that the effectiveness of the family planning programmes has been reduced from the 1980s onwards. Family planning and population growth in the nation cannot be controlled until and unless the programmes are implemented effectively. The political leaders during the time of elections promise different actions to be taken for control of population growth and enhance family planning in the nation. They forget their promises once they win the elections.
The Dire Need Of Population Control In India
The fertility rate in India is very high and this states that it can cause a population explosion in the coming future. About 10 lakh people get added to India’s existing population in every 20 days. This rise in population is not normal and will become a serious concern in the future.
Family Planning Programme In China- China is the most populous country in the world. The fertility rate in that country was halved after the successful implementation of the family planning programme in the nation. China has launched the one-child policy in the 1980s and that was strictly followed by every couple in the nation. The penalty was the punishment for not following the rules. In this way, China was successful in bringing the rising population into control. If we talk of India, the scenario started changing after the implementation of the National Family Planning Programme but after its completion, the effort of the government has been ceased in this aspect.
Since India is a democratic nation so nobody can be forced to do something but the implementation of the programmes at the root level can be effective. Awareness programmes can help people in understanding the negative impacts of population growth in the nation. This will make people come out from their old beliefs and traditions of having more children. Such effort might help in reducing the population till the end of the 21st century.
Social evils like poverty, illiteracy, religious beliefs, lack of opportunities, etc are the great obstacles that hinder the success of family planning programmes in the nation. There are many states in India that are still having higher fertility rates. It is because of the people’s belief in their old traditions or customs and religious faith. Women in these areas fear in using any type of birth control methods. Education is the most important weapon to eradicate these problems from society. The educated people can get good job opportunities and understand different programs and policies in a better way. Thus, the government of India must make effort to make the nation free of these existing issues. The process is time taking as the population of India is very high yet right effort in right direction will surely bring a positive result.
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FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions on Family Planning In India
Ans. Africa is the country that has the lowest rate of contraceptive use in the world.
Ans. Female sterilization is the most used and popular birth control method in India.
Ans. “Mission Pariwar Vikas” is the name of family planning programme in India at present.
Ans. Himanta Biswa Sharma, the Chief Minister of Assam is regarded for the introduction of the two-child policy in India.