Essay on Causes of Pollution

Pollution is the word used to refer to the addition of polluting substances in the natural environment that we live in. These pollutants are degrading the quality of the environment and are also harmful to the health and life of humans and other living creatures. In the following essay, we will go into detail through the causes of pollution.

Short and Long Essay on Causes of Pollution in English

Here I’m presenting short and long essays on Causes of Pollution in different word limits that is useful for students of classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12. The language is kept very simple with short lines so that every student can understand these essays properly.

Causes of Pollution Essay 10 Lines (100 – 150 Words)

1) The addition of pollutants or harmful substances to the environment is termed as pollution.

2) Growing pollution is harmful to the health of all living organisms.

3) Emission from industries can cause both air and water pollution.

4) Pollution is also caused by vehicles that emit harmful carbon monoxide and nitrous oxides.

5) Improper waste disposal is another cause of increasing pollution.

6) Littering plastic bags, water bottles, etc contribute to environmental pollution.

7) Natural disasters like landfills can cause land pollution.

8) Burning of fossil fuels produces sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, etc causing air pollution.

9) Excess use of chemical fertilizers can also result in environmental pollution.

10) Human activities and nature both are responsible for causing pollution.

Essay 1 (250 Words) – Human-Induced and Natural Causes of Pollution


The term ‘pollution’ refers to the contamination of the natural environment and its components through the addition of polluting substances. These polluting substances are mainly produced due to human activities. Human-induced causes pollute the air, water, and soil.

Human-Induced Causes of Pollution

The main human-induced or anthropogenic causes of pollution include industries, transportation, waste disposal, oil spills, use of chemical fertilizers, etc. There are several other activities of humans that are responsible for the pollution. These activities generate pollutants as byproducts, either in gaseous or in solid forms, which is left in the atmosphere. Gaseous pollutants thus pollute the air and the solid pollutants find their way into the water and soil. The irony is that human-induced pollution is increasing in intensity with each passing day and its effects are getting more and more intense.

Natural Causes of Pollution

Organic compounds generated from plants, soil, and dust from several sources are some natural sources of pollution. Also, natural events like volcanic eruption, forest fire, and storms also cause pollution. Volcanic eruption sends dense smoke high in the atmosphere and contains small particulate matter as well as gases. They remain suspended in the air for a longer time. Forest fires are also a source of the smoke and harmful gases as well as soot generated due to the burning of wood.


Natural causes of pollution are minuscule and have an almost negligible effect on the environment in comparison to the human-induced causes. It is only the human-induced causes that are primarily responsible for all kinds of existing pollution on the planet.

Essay 2 (400 Words) – What are Human Activities Causing Pollution


Pollution is a global issue that threatens the environment and also the life on earth. It affects every living creature and also natural resources. There are several types of pollution like – air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, sound pollution, light pollution, etc. Most of the pollution is caused due to human activities, barring a few exceptions.

Human Activities Causing Pollution

Many causes of pollution are anthropogenic, that is they are caused by human activities. Various human activities primarily responsible for causing pollution are as described below-

  • Industrialization

Industrial waste and its emission are responsible for air pollution as well as water pollution. Harmful gaseous waste is released into the air as well as the solid waste is released into the water bodies. This considerably pollutes the air and water bodies, rendering them harmful to breathe and consume.

  • Transportation

The transport industry is the fastest growing industry and every day millions of new vehicles hit the road. These vehicles include small personal transport as well as large commercial transport vehicles. The exhaust from these vehicles consists of carbon monoxide and nitrous oxides which pollute the air and are harmful to humans.

  • Improper Waste Management

Improper waste management by humans is also a prime cause of pollution, leading to soil and water pollution. An urban settlement produces tons of waste every day. In the absence of an efficient and proper waste management system, this waste gets disposed of in the environment and pollutes natural resources.

  • Littering

Littering by humans is also the main cause of pollution. Littering usually consists of plastic bags, packaged food packets, water bottles and all. Plastic is non-biodegradable and stays in the soil and water for centuries; polluting them and degrading their quality.

  • Landfills

Landfills are the main source of air and land pollution. Waste collected from cities is dumped into heaps outside city limits. This waste gets bigger with each passing day and is left to degrade through the natural elements. Their degradation releases poisonous gases and also pollutes the soil. Apart from polluting the atmosphere, landfills also cause a number of diseases in humans and animals.


Almost all the causes of pollution are human-generated, which puts a moral responsibility on the human race to get the planet free from the menace it has created. Steps necessary for removing all kinds of pollution from the environment must be taken and sincerely implemented at all levels.

Essay on Causes of Pollution

Essay 3 (500 – 600 Words) – Causes of Different Types of Pollution


Pollution refers to the addition of an unwanted foreign substance in an environment, which is by and large damaging to the latter. For example, smoke in the air, or any harmful gaseous leak from a factory, or release of chemical byproducts from a factory into the river are all examples of pollution.

Causes of Air Pollution

Air pollution is one of the most common types of pollution which is talked about too often. It refers to the contamination of the air by several activities mainly related to humans. The following are the main causes of air pollution.

  • Burning of Fossil Fuel

Fossil fuel burning is the main cause of air pollution because it releases harmful Sulfur dioxide (SO2) which is poisonous to inhale as well as a potent greenhouse gas. Burning of coal and petroleum in factories, transport vehicles, all are a constant source of harmful gases, primarily responsible for pollution. Transport vehicles emit Carbon monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen Oxides from the exhaust as byproducts of combustion. These two gases are not only poisonous but also potent greenhouse gases as well.

  • Industrial Exhaust

Exhausts from factories and industries are another significant source of air pollution. These industries release gases like carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons along with other chemicals into the air directly through chimneys. These gases are dispersed into the air and get mixed with it, thereby degrading the quality of air.

Causes of Water Pollution

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies through various sources. More often these sources are human-induced and are caused due to several human activities. The main causes of water pollution are listed below-

  • Industrial Waste

Gaseous byproducts of industries are left in the air and cause air pollution. But a good number of industries use water bodies to dispose of their solid waste. The solid waste, often consisting of harmful chemicals, and solid pollutants are mixed with water and disposed of into the water bodies. This method pollutes the water bodies and makes the water unusable.

  • Urban Sewage

Sewage consists of the wastewater produced by the urban settlement. Such waste produced by the houses, hotels, offices, and other sources is channelized through a network of underground drainage systems and is often released into rivers and streams. Urban sewage consists of various harmful chemicals and gases, which upon release, get mixed in the water bodies. This builds a critical situation for the humans as well as other living beings; those rely on the water body.

Causes of Soil Pollution

Soil pollution is of greater concern for the human civilization as it is the soil from which food is produced. Also, many countries around the world have agriculture as a prime occupation.

  • Chemical Fertilizers

These days the agricultural industry uses a large number of chemical pesticides and fertilizers to enhance the production of crops. These chemical fertilizers and pesticides may enhance productivity, but in the long run, are damaging to the soil. Also, these chemicals seep down to the water bodies with rainwater and other sources.

  • Waste Disposal

Improper waste disposal by humans is the main cause of soil pollution. It includes activities like littering etc. Also, the household waste that is not properly disposed of, find its way to the soil, through wind and water. Usually, this waste consists of plastic and other harmful substances that do not degrade and pollute the soil.


Pollution is a global concern and must be addressed on a war footing. It threatens the very existence of the planet and all its creatures. Pollution also gives rise to a number of geographical and climatic changes that are threatening to life on earth.

FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions on Causes of Pollution

Q.1 What are human-made pollutants called?

Ans. Human-made pollutants are called anthropogenic.

Q.2 Which metal released from automobiles has negative effects on human health?

Ans. The emission of lead from automobiles has a negative effect on human health.

Q.3 What is the indicator of pollution in water?

Ans. The amount of BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) is the indicator of pollution in water.

Q.4 What is the main cause of air pollution?

Ans. The main cause of air pollution is the burning of fossil fuels and vehicular emissions, power plants, and industries.

Q.5 What is the major cause of thermal pollution?

Ans. The major cause of thermal pollution is the hot water discharges by

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