Adult Education in India Essay

Adult education refers to the education provided to adults. It includes a wide area of specific subjects, skill improvement, vocational training, and others. It is a good initiative for those adults who never had a chance to go to school.

Short and Long Essay on Adult Education in India in English

Here I’m presenting short and long essays on Adult Education in India in different word limits of 120 words, 250 words, 400 words and 600 words that is helpful for students of classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and class 12. The language is kept simple so that every student can understand these essays properly.

Adult Education in India Essay 10 Lines (100 – 150 Words)

1) The process of educating adults is termed as Adult Education.

2) Adult education can include vocational training, skill improvement, etc.

3) It is a good opportunity for adults who have never been to school.

4) Adult education is helpful in the progress of the nation.

5) It will also help adults to become independent.

6) Adult education will also help to increase literacy rates in India.

7) Adult education gives a second chance to people who left their studies due to some reason.

8) Adult education helps in establishing a strong society.

9) Adult education helps people to fulfill their personal and professional needs.

10) National Literacy Mission, National Education Mission, etc are some government initiatives for adult education.

Advantages of Adult Education – Essay 1 (250 Words)


Adult education is a very important issue that deeply impacts the socio-economic progress of a nation. It’s all about giving ample learning opportunities to those who didn’t have a chance during childhood.

Advantages of Adult Education

Some of the most important advantages of adult education are listed in bullet points below-

  • Brings back a lost opportunity to learn, to the adults who didn’t have the opportunity to go to the school as children.
  • It allows adults to learn without disturbing their working hours.
  • Teaches skills to the adults making them self dependent and progressive.
  • It improves the overall status of society by educating its adults.
  • Targets women education thereby also lifting up the social status of the women.
  • Instill self-confidence and awareness in adult learners.
  • Changes the whole perspective of looking into things making the adults wiser.
  • Improve business acumen through several skill development programs.
  • Empower women by giving them a chance to come out of houses and socialize with fellow learners.
  • Adult education provides an opportunity for adults to pursue specific areas of skill sets or education.
  • It makes society more strong by educating its adults and making them self reliant.


Adult education is very important in eliminating illiteracy and putting the nation on the path of growth and progress. A child, who never had the opportunity to go to school, becomes an illiterate adult. It is absolutely fair and the responsibility of the state to give such adults another opportunity to get educated and improve their social and economical status.

Steps Taken by the Government towards Adult Education in India – Essay 2 (400 Words)


Adult education is an education that is provided to the adults, those who didn’t have an opportunity to get educated during their childhood. Adult education seeks to make the adults self-dependent by teaching them basic skills and also improving their employability.

Steps Taken by the Government

The government of India continuously strives to improve the state of adult education in India since independence. It is allotted funds in every consecutive five years plan since independence. The most significant of the government’s initiative towards adult education came with the ‘National Literacy Mission’, the details of which are given below-

  • National Literacy Mission

The national literacy mission was launched on 5th May 1988. Inaugurated by the then Prime Minister Mr. Rajiv Gandhi, the National Literacy Mission aimed at instilling in every Indian, basic education skills.

The National Literacy Mission (NLM) seeks to remove the shortcomings of the National Adult Education Program (NAEP). NLM was designed after assessing the flaws in the NAEP.

NLM seeks to introduce routine literacy campaigns throughout the country in a phased manner. One of the mission’s main objectives at the time of its institution was to educate 80 million illiterates in the age group of 15 to 35 by the end of the year 1995.

The NLM was different than the NAEP in many ways; one of the most distinguished was that it involved youth and other volunteer agencies to achieve its goals.

  • National Education Mission

National Education Mission was launched on 8th September 2009 as a centrally sponsored scheme. The mission comprised of four other schemes – Sakshar Bharat, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha, and teacher training programs.

The mission targeted women’s education along with adult education. It was specifically designed for pupils above 15 years of age. It also aimed at imparting education to 70 million Indian adults (as in 2009) which includes around 60 million women. Under the program, around 597 districts were covered under the Total Literacy Campaign; 485 districts were covered under the Post Literacy Programme and 328 districts under the Continuing Education Program.


All the missions of the government of India towards the education of the children and adults have been successful so far. According to a study conducted by UNESCO (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization) in 2010, around 81% of Indian youths falling in the age group of 15-25 were literate including 63% of total adults.

Essay on Adult Education in India

History of Adult Education in India – Essay 3 (500 – 600 Words)


Adult education refers to the education option provided to those who have missed the opportunity to get educated during the early years of their life. It includes basic education and skill development.

History of Adult Education in India

The concept of adult education in India has undergone significant changes in the gone decades. Given below is a look back on how the concept and objective of adult education have changed with time.

  • Adult Education Before Independence

During the late 1880s, the British government in India started preferring educated adults over the illiterates, even for low jobs. Thus during the 1860s, the concept of night school for adult education was introduced. The idea of night school actually originated in England and therefore it also had an impact on India. Sometimes, after 1917, the night schools got grants and funds by the government.

Between 1916-1917, there were 707-night schools in Madras were around 17, 606 pupils were enrolled. Similarly, during the same period, there were 111-night schools in Bombay with 3197 pupils enrolled. Also, the state of Bengal had 886-night schools with 18,563 pupils.

A very prominent literacy program in colonial India was instituted at Mysore by Sir M. Visveswaraya. As the effect of the program, around seventy thousand adult literacy classes were established from 1851 to 1868. This was the period when the concept of Jail school was introduced by Dr. Walker. There was 1 jail school in Agra prison with 2000 enrollments; the Bombay jail has 21 schools with 1257 enrollments.

The state of Punjab witnessed an extensive adult education campaign during 1921. Within the next six years, there were at least 100,000 adults enrolled in night education classes throughout the state. These classes and program were funded by the Punjab state’s government.

Subsequently, after the 1937 provincial elections and the formation of various ministries, many states started implementing adult education programs.

  • Adult Education After Independence

After independence and upon the recommendation of the Saxena committee which was formed to assess the state of literacy in India, the government declared a target for making at least 50% of adults within the age group 12 to 50 years, literate.

As per the official records, during 1947-1951, around 5 lakh adults participated in literacy programs through 2000 classes. There was a separate program for the army personnel. The government had spent approximately Rs 3.8 crore on adult literacy programs, during that period.

Post-1951, adult education got included in the Five Year Plan and was subsequently allotted financial aid for schools, classes, libraries, training of teaching staff, etc.

During the first five year plan (1951-1956) an amount of Rs 5 crore was allotted for adult education. The money was spent on various schemes like model community centers, Janata College, Integrated library services, improvement of library services, development of schools, training of teachers, etc.

The second five-year plan saw an allotment of Rs 15 crore under various heads of adult education. Out of which Rs 5 crore was to be spent as per the need in the previous five-year plan, whereas the remaining 10 crore was to be spent on the community development program. The step was taken by the government to actively involve the community in adult education and do the necessary promotion of its vision through all modes.


Despite all the efforts by the government towards educating the adults, India is home to around 300 million adults, out of which 59% are women. Though, the country has made significant progress in the past decades, in the field of education; still, there is a lot left to be done.

FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions on Adult Education in India

Q.1 Which programme was first implemented for adult education in India?

Ans. The National Adult Education Programme in 1978 was launched to start adult education in India.

Q.2 What is the need for adult education programme in India?

Ans. Adult education will help in reducing the illiteracy rate in India.

Q.3 What are the key factors of adult education?

Ans. The key factors of adult education are education, experience, and communication.

Q.4 What does PREAL stand for?

Ans. It stands for Project in radio education for adult literacy.

Q.5 What was the motive of launching PREAL?

Ans. It was launched to enhance learning in adults by listening the radio and watching television.

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