Essay on Indian Economy

Indian Economy

The economy of any country is directly dependent on the productivity of the nation. Agriculture is the base of the Indian economy as a large population is deployed in this sector to earn their living. India is a developing nation that is mentioned among the fast-growing economies. The economy of India boosts up in the 21st century due to the immense growth of industries and manufacturing units. There are many more things to know about the Indian economy.

Short and Long Essay on Indian Economy in English

I have provided a long essay on this topic that will be an aid to students of class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and higher standards to know more about the Indian economy.

Indian Economy Essay 10 Lines (100 – 150 Words)

1) The financial health of any country or region is referred to as its economy.

2) Economy of a country is influenced by the production and consumption rate.

3) After independence, the Indian economy started to grow.

4) Indian economy was greatly harmed due to the Corona pandemic.

5) The emergence of newer technology is helping the economic growth of India.

6) Half of the Indian economy is influenced by the agricultural process.

7) Another contributor to the Indian economy is the industrial sector.

8) Settlement of new industries and job opportunities are increasing India’s economy.

9) Demonetization had also affected the economic growth of the country.

10) In terms of nominal GDP, India is ranked sixth in the world.

Short Essay on Indian Economy (250 words)


The economy is stated as the financial status of the country or region through which the production and consumption process is regulated. India is a developing nation and therefore the economy of India is a middle-income developing market economy. India is stated as the world’s sixth-largest economy according to the nominal GDP.

India in past was among the greatest economies of the world but it has perished during the British rule in the nation. The economic condition of India again started improving after the independence and is trying to be better day by day.

Sectors that Majorly Contribute to the Economy of India

Agricultural Sector – Agriculture the pillar of the Indian economy. 50% of the Indian economy is generated by the agricultural sector. A big percentage of the population i.e. more than 60% are residing in villages of India. Fishing, poultry, growing crops, etc. are common works that are done by people of rural India. In this way, the agriculture sector is the highest employment-providing sector in India. The technological advancement and growth of industrialization are the cause of the decline of the agricultural sector at present.

Industrial Sector – It is the next important sector after the agricultural sector to contribute to the Indian economy. The growth of small-scale and large-scale industries in the nation after 1990 has positively contributed to the economy of India. The growth of new industries has have opened the door to several employment opportunities for the people.

Service Sector – This is one of the most important sectors of the Indian economy. At present, it is the highest contributor to the economy of the nation.


The economy of India at present has been majorly affected by lockdown imposed due to the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic. India is not only the single country to face this issue but the entire world is facing the same issue due to the outbreak of pandemics.

Long Essay on Indian Economy and its Growth (500 – 600 Words)


Adam Smith described Economics in his book ‘Wealth of Nations’ in the year 1776 and he is also known as the father of Economics. He described; ‘The process of distribution of the available limited resources is termed as Economics and the entire Economics is based on demand and supply principle which encourages sale and purchase. The process of total sales and purchases in a country decides its comical growth.

Indian Economy before the Colonial Period

Before the Britishers visited India, it was a prospering nation having trade with many countries. Near about 85% population was directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture and they use to grow only those crops which they use to consume themselves. On the other side, India was also famous for its Handicraft industry.

India was an independent self-reliant and prosperous country and this is the reason it was known as the Golden Bird. As per British economist, Angus Maddison Indians shared 24.4% of the world economy before the colonial period.

Indian Economy during the British Rule

When Britishers ruled India, they destroyed our economy and started converting India into a supplier of raw material for the British industries. The Handicraft industry was heavily affected during this period. As they imposed more taxes on the export of Indian handicraft products that caused our produce more costly on foreign lands. Whereas no taxes were charged on British goods in India and because of this the Indian economy shanked to 4.2% in the year 1950. Britishers ramshackle the Indian economy badly.

Indian Economy: Post-Independence

After independence, we were free to think about our economy and it was time to make some new rules and policies.

  • Capitalist Economy: We saw that the USA running their own policies and they focused on Privatisation and were running a Capitalist economy. The USA was a well-developed nation and it is quite natural to adopt their policies but at the same time, some countries like China and USSR were following the Socialist economy.
  • Socialist Economy: Socialist economy means a nation where most of the portion is governed or owned by the government itself. Both the capitalist and social forms of the economy were doing well as a result we adopted a mixed economy having some both social and capitalist economy.
  • Areas we Focused on: After adopting a Mixed Economy, we focused on our daily needs like food. India was not capable to produce sufficient food and use to import wheat from other countries. In the year 1966-67 Green Revolution was introduced and this made India self-dependent. In this way, India developed an agricultural background.

After developing our land, it was time to encourage industrial growth. Although in the year 1956 some industrial policies were introduced. In further years we developed industries related to strategic significance like Engineering goods, iron, and steel industries, etc., and high interest rates were given to encourage saving habits. All these things helped a lot in developing our economy.

The Present Scenario of Indian Economy

Although we were developing rapidly due to COVID-19 the entire world suffered and there was a sharp decrease in our economy. In the second quarter of 2020, the economy shanked up to 23.9%. During the lockdown, all the industries were closed. All kinds of small-scale and large-scale industries were closed this directly affected our economy and it contracted up to 23.9% which was the least in the history of India.

It has been measured least in the month of April and up to October, we can measure some growth. Although it is not very high still it will take some time to neutralize. The situation is far better and we wish for the best.

The small-scale industries and daily wage workers were badly affected in the COVID-19. After China India serves the highest population in this world and also has the highest daily wage workers. These workers immigrated to their native lands and this crushed our economy. Hopefully, the COVID-19 cases are decreased and will also improve our economy.


It is necessary to focus on our own ‘talent and need’ because the economy is something defines the demand and supply principle and rather than depending on other nation, we should have to become “Vocal for local” and this will definitely help us to become superpower someday.

FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions

Q.1 How did COVID-19 affected the Indian economy?

Ans. The wreck of the Pandemic has slowed down the GDP growth rate. Many small-scale industries have shut down and the masses have lost their jobs that had greatly affected the economy of the nation.

Q.2 What is the rank of the Indian economy in the world?

Ans. The Indian economy is ranked as the fifth-largest economy in the whole world with a GDP of $2.94 trillion.

Q.3 Why India is still a developing economy?

Ans. After 70 years of Independence India is still regarded as a developing nation because of the inappropriate strategies of the policymakers and social evils.

Q.4 What is the main source of the Indian economy?

Ans. Agriculture is the main source of the Indian economy.