An Emergency is a state or condition provided by the constitution where the government can impose laws and policies which is generally prohibited. The emergency in India lasted for 21 months and is considered to be the darkest phase in Indian Democracy. It was a bad phase where many citizens faced exploitation and the Indian Government didn’t listen to them. It is still criticized and called an arbitrary rule. The essay below mentions emergencies, reasons, impacts, and aftermaths of emergencies in India.
Long Essay on Emergency in India
Emergency in India Essay - 1150 Words
The Emergency in India is not less than a stain in India’s democratic history which Congress and Indian People would like to forget. The Emergency not only created political unrest but also left some unforgettable pain. Being the largest democracy, India is always supposed to set up a benchmark about how to run a country democratically and emergencies led to devastating those needs. Many people criticized it and resulted in the downfall of the government.
What is an Emergency?
Emergency measures or steps are implemented to ensure the safety and protection of citizens of the constitutions. The emergency can be declared in the state of natural phenomenon leading to disaster, unrest in the country, conflicts in the army, and chances of seizure of power or in the condition of any epidemic.
These provisions can either be provided by the constitution of the country or the government sometimes imposes martial law. Under the constitutional emergency, the fundamental rights are snatched by the government except the right to live. Indian constitution grants 3 types of emergencies in India depending on the requirements.
What are Emergency Provisions and Situations?
The Constitution of India grants emergency in 3 ways. The provisions regarding them are mentioned in part XVIII of the constitution. These cover Article 352 to 360 and are mentioned below-
- National Emergency
The national emergency comes under the Article 352 of the Indian constitution and it is implemented on the basis of war, external aggression and rebellion by armed forces. The president has the right to declare an emergency if he/she feels that the security of the country is at risk. The rebellion by armed forces was provided by the 38th constitutional amendment of the Indian constitution.
- The implementation of emergency can take place only if gets discretion from both the houses of parliament.
- The prior notice should be provided 1 month before the date of implementation.
- The emergency can last for 6 months and if necessary then it can be extended for an indefinite period after an approval by parliament for every 6 months.
- Removal of Emergency can be done by president at anytime as it doesn’t require parliamentary procedures.
- The fundamental rights can be taken away but right live is provided.
2. President’s Rule/State Emergency
The president’s rule or state emergency is the provision to be imposed in the situation of external aggression, internal instability and the condition if the constitutional provisions are not followed. This provision comes under the Article 355. The article 356 claims that if the situation is not favorable, the centre can take up the government of the State.
- The state emergency can be imposed if the governor of a state regarding the inability of the state government.
- The president’s rule will come in effect if the both houses of parliament approve it before the 2 months of its imposition.
- There are provisions which can allow the parliament to take over the powers of state legislature.
3. Financial Emergency
The financial emergency is also imposed by the president of India. The conditions for imposing the financial emergency include the dissatisfaction of the president with the financial situation. If the situation is creating any type of threat or risk to the financial condition, then this measure is taken. However, to date, no financial emergency has been imposed in India.
- The Financial Emergency falls under the Article 360 of the Indian Constitution.
- The proclamation of emergency must be declared within 2 months from the date of issue.
- The financial emergency can continue till an indefinite time until its revocation.
Why was the 1975 Emergency Imposed?
Many historians cite different reasons for the implementation of an emergency by Indira Gandhi. Some say internal dispute and some site Rajnarain’s verdict of Allahabad High Court. The reasons for imposing emergency are following-
- Gujarat Andolan
The students of LD College of Engineering were protesting against school fees hike in 1973. Later, they forced the State Government to resign and named the movement, Navnirman Andolan.
- JP Movement
An activist and a freedom fighter Jayaprakash Narayan led a mass to pressurize the government for resignation. The movement took place in the year 1974 and was named as ‘Total Revolution’ or ‘Purn Swaraj’.
- Raj Narain Verdict
One of the main reasons for the emergency was Raj Narain’s Verdict. During 1971, Raj Narain fought elections against Indira Gandhi from Raebareli and lost. He accused her of winning elections by false means. Later, Allahabad High Court cross-examined Indira Gandhi and her election was declared null and void.
What are the Effects of Impacts of Emergency of 1975?
The Emergency of 1975 has left a great impact over the history of India. From the exploitation of human rights to the downfall of the government of Indira Gandhi, the aftermaths and impacts of the Emergency are listed below.
- Indira Gandhi’s government failed and lost the 1977 elections.
- India saw leaders like Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Murali Manohar Joshi, and Morarji Desai etc.
- The slogan of Indira Hatao took a rise.
- The attack on freedom of press is still a question.
- The government was questioned on the matter of human rights.
Interesting Facts Related to Emergency-
- There were a total of 3 emergencies declared in India, in 1962, 1971 and 1975.
- Indira Gandhi was the first and only PM to get testified by any court of India.
- Many literatures and films were made to highlight the emergency.
The emergency was really a tough period for many people. The government was called a dictator and saw a big impact on the democracy of India. Indian democracy itself holds recognition and power in the whole world. Today, even many Congress leaders condemn the Emergency and whatever the happenings took place at that time. There are many facts and claims that oppose emergency and some defend but whatever happened at that time was a matter of concern. It must be taken in mind that it should not be repeated by any of the governments to withhold the constitutional and democratic freedom of India.
FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions
Ans. Indira Gandhi imposed the 1975 emergency.
Ans. There are 3 types of emergency, National, State and Financial.
Ans. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed was the president when 1975 emergency was imposed.
Ans. In India, emergencies were imposed in the year 1962, 1971 and 1975.
Ans. The 1962 emergency, during the Indo-China war, was the longest emergency for India which lasted till 1968.