Essay on River Ganga

River Ganga is the most important and the longest river in India. The facts about River Ganga are greatly studied by people in different regions of the world because of its great spiritual and cultural significance. Moreover, people from different parts of India and the world come to take a glimpse of this famous river. This great river has been serving the people of India, Bangladesh, and Nepal from years. The tales of River Ganga has been mentioned in our Vedas that give evidence of the presence of this river from years on this earth.

Short and Long Essay on River Ganga in English

The topic ‘river Ganga is very important as well as interesting for all the students, exam aspirants and readers. Students often get this topic to write an essay, paragraph, assignment, project, etc. Moreover, many questions related to this topic are asked in the competitive examinations. In the same reference, I have provided a long elaborated essay on the topic of River Ganga. I hope that this essay will be useful for all the readers, students and exam aspirants in getting a brief knowledge regarding the river Ganga and this will also provide you all with an idea of presenting your views on this topic.

10 Lines Essay on Ganga (100 – 150 Words)

1) Ganga is a famous sacred river that flows in several parts of India.

2) It is the longest river in India known for its religious importance.

3) The main streams of the river Ganga are Alaknanda and Bhagirathi.

4) Ganga flows in different states of India like Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Patna, and West Bengal.

5) After flowing in India, it enters Bangladesh as the Padma.

6) In India, Ganga is positioned as a goddess and referred to as “Ganga Maa”.

7) Many people believe that bathing in this river can wash all your sins.

8) A huge population is dependent on this river for their basic water requirement.

9) Ganga river is now severely polluted.

10) Ganga Action Plan, Namami Gange, etc are campaigns to clean Ganga, enforced by the government of India.

Short Essay on River Ganga (200 – 250 Words)

Ganga is a sacred river that flows in India with its religious importance. People from different parts of the world come to take bath in this river because of its holy significance. Another reason for its popularity is pollution. The government has taken several steps to clean this river but still Ganga is considered the second most polluted river in India. India considers Ganga as Goddess and worships her by referring as “Ganga Maa”. People use water from this river (Ganga Jal) for religious purposes. After death, many people believe to cremate ashes in this river for salvation.

Ganga is the home of several aquatic species. It also provides fertile land for good agriculture. Moreover, it is a good source of water for irrigation as well as hydro-power generation. About half the population of the country is dependent on the river Ganga for drinking water.

Alaknanda and Bhagirathi are the two major streams that contributed to the origin of the river Ganga. These streams meet at Devprayag town in Uttarakhand. The length of this river is about 2,510 km. It is considered that Ganga originates from southeast Gangotri and flows in different parts of India. At Prayagraj, Ganga meets two other rivers Yamuna and Saraswati and hence the place is called Sangam. Ganga passes from different states of India namely, Delhi, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal.

Long Essay on The River Having Great Cultural And Religious Significance (1500 Words)


Rivers are very important for the survival of the people in any of the nations in the world. They have been supporting and nourishing several civilizations in past as well as present. India is a blessed land that is fed by several significant rivers. River Ganga is one of the most famous and sacred rivers in India. This river has great spiritual importance in Hindus and is considered a symbol of purity. In other words, we can say that river Ganga is referred to as a precious river by Hindus. We will be discussing in detail the river Ganga and several aspects related to this river in the long essay provided below.

River Ganga- Worshipped As Goddess in Hindus

River Ganga is a significant river for the people living in India. It is because the river flows in different parts of the nation and is sustaining the life of millions of people residing near the river bed. Jahnavi, Gange, Shubhra, Sapteshwari, Nikita, Alaknanda, etc are the different names of the river Ganga but the official name of the river is Ganges. This major river is designated as the Goddess and is worshipped by the Hindus in the entire nation. River Ganga is regarded as the Goddess of purity and forgiveness. This is only the reason that people consider that bathing in the holy water of River Ganga helps in purifying an individual from all the sins. People majorly perform the ritual of bathing in the river and then taking water in their hands and then leaving back into the river. They do this in order to pay their tribute to their ancestors as well as to God.

The places like Sangam, Haridwar, and Varanasi are considered as famous pilgrimage places for taking bath in the sacred water of the Ganga River. After bathing in the holy water of River Ganga people also carry some river water in containers and that is called ‘Ganga Jal’. This water is considered auspicious and thus sprayed in every important Hindu ritual. The ashes after cremation in Hinduism are also plunged in River Ganga as this activity helps the dead ones in attaining moksha. There are many festivals like Ganga Jayanti, Ganga Dussehra and dev Deepawali celebrated to pay homage to the River Ganga. These festivals are celebrated in all the major cities that lie on the banks of the river Ganga in India. People offer prayer on these occasions by lighting diyas and offering flowers in the river water.

Appearance Of River Ganga- A fair beautiful woman sitting on a creature called Makara as her vehicle is considered as the appearance of Goddess Ganga. There are many stories related to the river Ganga in our ancient Vedas. The tales related to River Ganga are also present in Ramayana, Mahabharata, and Puranas. River Ganga is termed as the sister of Goddess Parvati in the great epic Ramayana whereas in the epic Mahabharata Ganga is termed as the mother of the great warrior Bhishma Pitamaha. In this way, there are several tales prevalent about River Ganga that is also called ‘Goddess Ganga’.

The Origin Of River Ganga

The river Ganga is said to have originated from the two major streams named Bhagirathi and Alaknanda that meet in the Devprayag town that lies in the Garhwal district of Uttrakhand state of India. According to Hindu mythology, the Gangotri glacier situated at Gomukh is the inception source of River Ganga. This glacier is at an elevation of 4356 meters that is also regarded as the matted locks of Lord Shiva. Alaknanda, Dhauliganga, Nandakini, Pindar, Mandakini, and Bhagirathi are stated as the sacred headstreams of river Ganga. These five sacred headstreams of River Ganga meet to form Panch Prayag. Further, the meeting of headstreams Bhagirathi and Alaknanda in Devprayag gives rise to the Rives Ganges.

River Ganga receives its major water from the rain and snow and is thus called a rain and snow-fed river. The longest river of India is 2525 km in length and the area of its basin is 1,016,124 square km. The average discharge rate of river Ganga at the Ganges delta is 18,691 cubic meters per second.

The Course Of River Ganga- The great river Ganga traces its course from the mountains in Rishikesh after flowing through the narrow Himalayan valleys. The river then traces its path through the Gangetic plains and flows in the broad plain area in the holy town of Haridwar in the Uttrakhand state of India.  Further, this major river flows in different parts of northern India. The river Ganga meets with another important river Yamuna in the Prayagraj district of Uttar Pradesh state in India. This confluence of Ganga, Yamuna, and Saraswati rivers is regarded as a sacred place in Prayagraj and given the name of ‘Sangam’. In this way, the river flows through several districts of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand states of India and finally becomes Hooghly River in the West Bengal state of India.

The river Ganga after tracing its major course in different Indian states lastly merges into the Bay of Bengal near Sagar Island. River Ganga also flows in Bangladesh that is a neighbouring country of India. This river is known by the name Padma in the country Bangladesh. The Ganges delta near the Bay of Bengal formed by the rivers namely Ganga and Brahmaputra is regarded as the largest delta in the world. The area of this world’s largest delta is 64,000 square km.

Important Tributaries Of River Ganga

River Ganga is stated as a major river flowing in India and Bangladesh countries of the world. The flow of river is not only in one single direction but it bifurcates and flows in different regions of India. There are several tributaries that form part of this major river in India. Gomti, Ghaghara, Gandaki, Kosi, rivers forms the major left-bank tributaries of the River Ganga. The important right-bank tributaries of River Ganga are Yamuna, Son, Punpun, and Damodar rivers. River Ganga forms a large drainage basin that spreads in four countries namely India, Nepal, China and Bangladesh. In India, the major river basin of the Ganga River spreads in eleven states namely Uttrakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, West Bengal, and Delhi.

River Ganga- A Gift Of Nature To The People Of India

River Ganga is very beneficial to the people of India and majorly in the regions where this great river traces its course. It is regarded as the national river of India because of the enormous benefits that it provides to the people of the nation and hence it is designated as the Goddess. The importance of River Ganga for the people of India is enlisted below:

  • Ganga is a snow-fed river and thus its water persists and is available to people of the nation throughout the year. The river provides sustenance to the people living on its bank from years.
  • The silt deposited by the river water forms very fertile plains that support good agriculture. Moreover, the water of River Ganga is available throughout the year and thus it serves as the best source of irrigation for the cultivation of crops. The crops that grow well in the fertile Gangetic plains are rice, sugarcane, lentils, oil seeds, potatoes and wheat. In this way, it can be stated that the fertile plains and water availability in river Ganga enhances agricultural production and thus boosts the agricultural economy in the nation.
  • The river water is the best fishing grounds and this again helps in boosting the economy of the nation.
  • The river water has been utilized for the installation of different hydroelectric power projects and the construction of dams, bridges and canals. This has been beneficial for the people of the nation and also useful in uplifting the economy of India.
  • River Ganga is considered as a holy river in Hindus and therefore the cities and towns located on this river are the major spots for tourists. People of different parts of the nation come to take bath in the river and attain its blessings. The increase in tourism helps in boosting the economy of the nation.

The Flora And Fauna Of River Ganga Basin

The large Ganga Basin was rich in different varieties of flora and fauna but the wave of human development has totally changed the scenario. Many areas of the river basin rich in natural vegetation have been converted into agricultural lands or urban areas full with human settlement. The area along the Himalayan foothills that contribute to be one-fourth of the river basin areas rich in flora and fauna is only left with the natural habitat.

This area also includes the Rajaji National Park, Jim Corbett National Park, and Dudhwa National Parks lying in the river Ganga Basin. The flora in the region of the Ganga river basin has been distinguished and there are very small patches of forest areas left over there. The upper Gangetic plains have tropical moist deciduous forests that are having Sal species in the majority while the lower gangetic plains have open forests. Bombax ceiba, Albizzia procera, Duabanga grandiflora, Sterculia vilosa are the dominant species found in the open forests of lower gangetic plains. 

The river Ganga Basin that once inhabited different wild varieties like Asian Elephants, Bengal Tigers, Indian rhinoceros, gaurs, barasinghas, sloth bears, and Indian Lions is now left with a very small number of species at present. At present, the wild varieties in the river basin are deer, wild boars, wildcats, Indian wolves, golden jackals, and Bengal foxes. The Bengal tigers are confined are now confined only to the Sunderbans area of the Ganga delta.

The Variety Of Fishes, Birds, Reptiles, And Turtles In River Ganga Basin

There are different varieties of birds inhabiting the Ganga river basin. They are myna, parrots, crows, kites, fowls, partridges, etc. Many among them such as the great Indian bustard and lesser florican species have become the threatened species in the entire world. There are about 143 species of fish dwelling in the different sections of the Ganga River Basin. 30 species of fish among them are considered as threatened species because of the prevailing issues like pollution, overfishing, silting of water, and invasive species. Ganges Shark is regarded as a critically endangered species of fish in the river basin.

The Ganga river basin is also home to reptile species like gharial, mugger crocodile, and saltwater crocodiles.  There are different species of aquatic and semi-aquatic species of turtles found in different sections of the river basin. They are northern river terrapin, three-striped roofed turtle, Indian black turtle, red-crowned roofed turtle, black pond turtle, Brahminy river turtle, Indian eyed turtle, brown roofed turtle, Indian tent turtle, Indian flapshell turtle, Indian narrow-headed softshell turtle, Indian peacock softshell turtle, Cantor’s giant softshell turtle different species of turtles harbouring the Ganga river basin but many of them have become endangered species at present.

Ganges River Dolphin- The Most Notable Species Of River Ganga

Ganges River Dolphin is regarded as the national aquatic animal in India and it is known to reside in the freshwater of River Ganga. There was a time when this aquatic creature used to be found in larger numbers in the freshwaters of both river Ganga and Brahmaputra. The number of freshwater dolphins in the Ganga river water at present has severely decreased and become one-fourth of their previous population because of the increasing pollution and the construction of dams in the river.

Is Rising Pollution Of River Ganga A Critical Issue?

River Ganga is stated as the most sacred river of India as well as it is worshipped as a goddess by the people of India. We cannot deny by this fact that the Ganga being the most sacred river of India is also the second most polluted river of the nation. It is really very sad to state that the river that is regarded as the symbol of purity is turning into the most polluted river in the nation. The excessive dumping of waste, effluent discharges from different industries, plunging of cremation ashes, flowers, incense sticks, human wastes, etc have deteriorated the quality of the river water. The river water in some cities has become black in colour.

It is demising to see such condition of river Ganga whose water was once utilized for drinking and bathing purposes by the people. The rising pollution in River Ganga has now become an international issue rather than being a national issue. The growing Ganga river pollution results in deterioration of the quality of water that becomes harmful for several aquatic species of flora and fauna. Several cases of illness due to water-borne infections are also reported in people living near the banks of the river Ganga. Moreover, the issue of global warming is also affecting the melting of the Gangotri glacier that is the source of the river.

Initiatives For Cleaning River Ganga

The growing population of the Ganga River is becoming a crucial issue in the nation. Many programmes have been launched for the purification of the polluted water of River Ganga but none have been much successful in fulfilling the objective. The major cleaning programme for cleaning of river Ganga named Ganga Action Plan (GAP) was initiated in the year 1985. This plan was the dream project of Rajiv Gandhi and was launched with great enthusiasm big expenditure with the motive of cleaning of river Ganga.

 The major motive of this programme was to clean pollution in river water in all districts of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal state that lies on the bank of River Ganga. The plan was working with a vision of reducing pollution by stopping the throwing of untreated wastes, effluents and diverting their routes. The result was that the GAP could not become successful in attaining its objective. It is because the plan greatly required the proper implementation for becoming a successful one. The different activities that were responsible for the pollution of the river water were not stopped properly and thus the scenario did not change.

The Initiation Of ‘Namami Gange’

Recently a new project named Namami Gange was launched by the government of India in the year 2014 for cleaning of River Ganga. This project aims to curb the different ways that cause Ganga river pollution. The project also focuses on the building of sewage treatment plants, biodiversity conservation, river surface cleaning, public awareness, etc. Along with the efforts of the government many NGOs have also shown their interest and participated in the cleaning drive of River Ganga. There are many infrastructures built as a result of the efforts of the rejuvenation of river Ganga but the problem of high pollution levels in the river is still prevailing. It requires root implementation of the programmes and policies for making it a successful one. It is also the responsibility of every individual in the nation to help in reducing the Ganga river pollution and cleaning the same.


River Ganga is essential for the existence of the people of India and especially in the regions where it is only the source of drinking water and agricultural purposes. The river basin also provides shelter to a variety of species of flora and fauna. The rising pollution of river water is not a good sign for the people of the nation. We must make effort to reduce the growing pollution in river Ganga and ensure that our efforts might result in the conservation of this natural resource. We must not only give the name goddess to this major river but also treat it like a goddess and help in retaining its purity once again. We all must try to make people aware of the rising pollution in Ganga and also make them understand the reasons behind the same. As an individual, this will be the best way of making effort to save the rivers of our nation.

I have tried to include every essential detail in the long essay on River Ganga provided above. I hope that you will love and enjoy reading the essay on River Ganga.

FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions On River Ganga

Q.1 When was the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) established?

Ans. The National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) was established in the year 2009.

Q.2 What was the name of the great King who brought the River Ganges from heaven to earth?

Ans. River Ganga was brought to earth from heaven by the great king Bhagirathi.

Q.3 What is the name of the largest tributary of River Ganga?

Ans. Ghaghara is the largest tributary of River Ganga.

Q.4 Which is the largest city on the bank of River Ganga?

Ans. The Kanpur city in Uttar Pradesh state of India is the largest city on the bank of River Ganga.

Q.5 Which tributary of River Ganga is regarded as the ‘Sorrow of Bihar’?

Ans. Kosi is the tributary of River Ganga that is regarded as the ‘Sorrow of Bihar’.